The Basics of Plumbing

Platinum Plumbing involves the distribution of clean water and sewage, as well as heating systems. Without these vital services, people would be exposed to dangerous bacteria and diseases.

This trade requires specialized knowledge and skills from a vocational school or college program or on-the-job training. Plumbers work in various environments, from homes to large industrial buildings.

A water supply system is an infrastructure for collecting, transmitting, treating, storing, and distributing water for homes, commercial establishments, and public needs such as street washing and fire fighting. Like electric power, gas and liquid fuels, telecommunications, transportation systems, and waste disposal, water supplies are often considered “lifeline” systems vital to industrialized societies and important for emergency response and recovery from disasters such as earthquakes.

Water sources in a water supply system may include groundwater (aquifers), surface water from rivers or lakes, and, in some cases, seawater through desalination. After treatment, the water is conveyed to the distribution system through conduits that are sometimes elevated, such as towers, or buried in the ground. The system can also be augmented with additional water-pressurizing components such as pumps.

Once the water is in the distribution system, it is delivered to customers through a network of pipelines. The pipes are typically arranged in a gridiron pattern to allow water circulation in interconnected loops, thus limiting problems with taste and odor caused by stagnation. Dead-end patterns that don’t provide circulation are usually more vulnerable to damage, though they may be less expensive to install and maintain.

The water quality in the distribution system can be compromised by cross-connections, which are any physical connections that allow nonpotable water or water of questionable quality to enter potable systems. This type of contamination often results from a defect in the plumbing systems of individual users but can also be caused by other factors.

Water is typically treated in a water treatment plant to remove contaminants and make the water safe for consumption. The treatment plant processes the water by oxidizing, reducing, or eliminating harmful substances and bacteria and disinfecting it through chlorination. It may also be treated for phosphorus, nitrogen, and other nutrients.

Water supply data are typically available for public water suppliers through the FRDS or State agencies responsible for allocation programs, compliance with the Safe Drinking Water Act (in most States), and State public health or water conservation initiatives. In addition, State or local governments can collect water consumption data independently.

Drainage systems take wastewater and sewage out of buildings, safely transporting it away to be processed or disposed of. This is an important part of the plumbing process as without it, waste could build up inside buildings, leading to many problems, including flooding, health risks, and even structural damage. Plumbing engineers design and install drainage systems to prevent this from happening.

Unlike supply pipes, which usually run above ground, drainage pipes are generally underground. This means they can be more difficult to inspect and maintain. However, modern technology has made it possible for plumbers to check the condition of drains with CCTV drain inspection cameras. This is a non-invasive way to see how well the drains function and identify any issues before they become problematic.

The most common drainage pipe type is a PVC or PE plastic tube. These are relatively inexpensive and easy to install, making them popular for most drainage applications. Other drainage pipes include cast iron, galvanized steel, copper, and stainless steel. Each type of pipe has advantages and disadvantages, depending on the application and site conditions.

It is understanding how drainage works helps to know a little about physics. The main principle is that water will always seek its level so liquids flow down a slope. This is why we flush toilets and use sink drains to remove waste – it all flows downhill to the sewer system or septic tank.

Sewage and wastewater leave a building through the drains connected to sewer lines that then go to a treatment plant or septic tank. The drainage system utilizes gravity to transport wastewater and sewage out of the building, so the pipes must be pitched or angled downwards to help with this. This also ensures that wastewater and sewage don’t back up into the home.

To prevent blockages, it is recommended that a drain is fitted with a p-trap or u-bend, which is a section of pipe that is curved in the shape of a “P” or “U.” This trap holds water and creates a seal to prevent sewage odors from entering the house. In addition, a vent pipe is often used to allow air into the drain system, helping to keep it free-flowing.

About one in five homes in the United States use septic systems to treat and disperse wastewater from toilets, showers, sinks, and laundry drains. Also known as on-site wastewater treatment systems, septic systems are an environmentally friendly way to manage household plumbing and eliminate the need for municipal sewer lines in rural or suburban areas.

All plumbing in a home with a septic system converges into a main drainage line that slopes toward a septic tank. Once the waste reaches the tank, it separates into three layers. Solids, consisting of all waste heavier than water, settle to the bottom of the tank, where microorganisms break them down. Liquids and scum, which are comprised of everything that’s lighter than water, float to the top of the tank. The middle layer, called effluent, exits the tank through underground perforated pipes into a drain field on a property. Here, gravel and soil act as biological filters to purify the wastewater as it slowly percolates into the groundwater.

Septic systems are more environmentally friendly than sewer systems. But even so, there are risks associated with septic tanks and the drain fields they connect to. Improper maintenance, chemicals, and large amounts of water can damage a tank or clog a leach field. This puts groundwater at risk of contamination.

A septic system needs to be designed for your property’s soil type and location. Consult a professional if you need help determining what kind of system you need.

Conventional septic systems are the most common and require a septic tank built on a slope to ensure proper drainage. These systems work well in regions with good soil permeability and drainage conditions.

Pressure distribution septic systems are similar to conventional septic systems, but they include a pump that evenly distributes wastewater throughout the drain field for better treatment. This makes these systems more versatile, making them suitable for sites with poorer soil conditions.

Alternative septic systems are a great choice for people living off-grid and need a more sustainable wastewater treatment solution. These systems use pumps or gravity to help septic tank effluent trickle through a filter of sand, organic material (such as peat and sawdust), constructed wetlands, or other media to remove or neutralize disease-causing pathogens, nitrogen, phosphorus, and other pollutants before dispersing into the soil.

Plumbing includes the system of pipes, fixtures, and appliances that convey chemicals and liquids for various uses. It differs from process piping, which involves connecting and distributing pipes for industrial processing systems. The knowledge and skills required to work in plumbing can be obtained through a vocational school, community college, or on-the-job training with an established plumbing company. As with all fields of work, continuing education is necessary to keep up with industry trends and changes in regulatory requirements. Knowing the basics of your home’s plumbing can save you money and headaches.

Check Out These Top Tips On Better Article Marketing

One of the best things about article marketing is that it can cost you absolutely no money. This means you will have to work entirely for yourself; however, that can be extremely beneficial. You write, backlink and market yourself, according to your exact specifications. Try different resources and set aside a certain amount each day to campaign for yourself.

Maintain an e-mail newsletter and get sign-ups on your website. An e-mail newsletter will allow you regular access to prospective customers in their e-mail inbox. They don’t even have to go to your website for you to reach them with a newsletter. Give them great information and finish with a link to your site; they’ll visit.

Avoid using “marketing language” within the article itself. Articles should focus on some aspect of your market in general rather than directly pitching a product or service. The place to get your marketing in is in your short call to action at the end of the article. If the content of the main article is congruent with the call to action, the reader is more likely to buy.

Be mindful of where you host your articles. Google recently changed its algorithm to penalize “low quality content farms.” Certain article hosting sites such as eHow and Squidoo, appear to have been affected. While article directories are a good supplementary source of back-links, host your articles on your own site if at all possible.

Get rid of your word counting software. Focus your writing on thorough explanations and information and including only the content you find the most important. If your article is longer or shorter than you originally intended, that is allowable. Keep content heavy, and your word count will not matter as much.

In conclusion, article marketing can be 100% free, if you go about it the right way. You cannot outsource your articles, backlinking or article submissions and you must use completely free directories. It is easy to work for yourself and will probably be worth it in the long run. Enjoy your financial freedom!

You can also visit our other websites and post your article.

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Bath And Kitchen Remodeling Ideas

Kitchen and bathroom remodeling is a sure-fire investment for your home’s value. However, trends will come and go and it’s important to choose upgrades that will suit your family’s needs and lifestyle.

Gather fabric swatches, paint brochures and samples and create an idea book to bring to your first consultation with your designer. This will help your designer plan a functional design that fits you and your space perfectly.

Kitchen Backsplash Tiles

Kitchen backsplashes are more than just protective surfaces to keep grease and grime off of the walls; they can be a creative way for homeowners to express their own personal style. Patterned or accented tile can bring life to this key design element in a home and create a focal point for the entire room.

Consider using contrasting grout colors on your backsplash to make the color pop. Or try a metallic backsplash to add a touch of sophistication to your space. Metals are durable and easy to clean, making them a practical kitchen backsplash material choice for homes that get heavy use.

A backsplash that runs up to the ceiling is perfect for bringing an extra level of style to your kitchen. This modern-meets-cottage kitchen uses round penny tiles to evoke a retro feel.

Backsplashes that incorporate mosaic tiles can help to unify diverse style elements in a kitchen. This sage-green backsplash features an arrangement of mosaic shapes that are both unique and sophisticated.

The backsplash above the stove can be a tricky area to protect from heat, oil splatters, and other messy spills. A nonporous, hard surface like this glazed subway tile backsplash is easy to clean and resists staining from food, cooking oils, and household cleaners. Its neutral hue also coordinates well with other materials and colors in this sleek contemporary kitchen.


Mosaic is decorative composite art that incorporates small pieces of stone, glass or ceramic tile called tesserae. These are laid down on a base of plaster or mortar to form patterns, pictures or designs. Mosaics were extremely popular in the Roman world, where they decorated walls and floors of cathedrals and government buildings. Today, mosaics are still in use as decoration, and craftspeople can create them on a variety of surfaces – including walls, floors and other architectural features. Mosaics are also used as decorative accents on tables, benches and flower pots.

There are five main types of mosaic art. The first is a classical style. This is characterized by the Greeks’ use of pebbles that had been softened by the sea, and their pictorial mosaics, which told a story rather than being purely decorative. This type of mosaic can be found in modern homes, and it often has a very elegant feel to it.

Organic mosaics are created with natural materials such as shells, seeds and stones. They can also include elements such as terra-cotta tiles with organic mother-of-pearl inserts. These are usually glued to a surface with mastic or cement, and grout is then used to fill the spaces between the tesserae.

Industrial mosaics are made of shards of glass, tile and other industrial-style materials. They can be very abstract, or they can be designed to resemble a specific object or building. In some cases, mosaics can be made offsite, and then installed onsite when the weather permits.

Tile Backsplashes

The most traditional kitchen backsplash is made from tile, which offers a wide range of options for color and design. Other materials, however, have been gaining popularity as backsplash alternatives, including stainless steel and natural stone. The choice of material will depend on a person’s lifestyle and design goals.

If you are interested in incorporating the latest trends into your kitchen’s design, a tile backsplash is a great choice. Neutral colors, like white and gray, are currently popular, but blues, greens and other natural hues are also making their way into modern kitchens. A backsplash is also a great way to add texture and visual interest to your kitchen’s design, with patterns and textures adding a pop of personality that can be difficult to achieve with other design elements.

If a full backsplash install isn’t in your budget, consider an alternative. Many stores sell self-adhering backsplash tiles that are designed for steamy kitchens and come in a variety of styles. If you’re a DIYer, try Charleston Crafted’s hack to paint your own backsplash. This inexpensive option is a lot more affordable than buying new tile, and it still looks just as beautiful. Or, if you prefer a stenciled look, Delineate Your Dwelling offers a tutorial on how to create a Moroccan-inspired backsplash using removable wallpaper.


Countertops are a major part of the decor of any kitchen or bathroom remodel. They are highly used areas that need to be durable and easy to clean. There are many different types of countertops available that homeowners can choose from depending on their style, budget and functional needs.

For example, stainless steel can be a great choice for a kitchen that gets a lot of use. It is resistant to water stains and scratches which makes it easy to maintain. However, it is not recommended for a bathroom because it shows water marks and fingerprints very easily. It is also not ideal for a family with children because it can be scratched by sharp objects.

Another option is wood counters which can add a nice rustic or modern look to the space. They are durable but they need to be properly sealed to protect them from mold, rot and water damage. The type of wood used will impact how well the countertop holds up to wear and tear. Softer woods like pine are not a good option but harder ones such as hickory or teak will do a better job.

Quartz counters are also a popular choice for bathroom remodeling because they have the look of natural stone but are less expensive and easier to maintain. They are heat and stain resistant and can be made in a variety of colors.


Every home is unique, and storage solutions should reflect the needs of its occupants. That’s why kitchen and bathroom remodeling should be done with an eye towards creating a space that meets the needs of the people who use it most.

Cabinets offer an opportunity to add style and functionality to these two most important rooms in the house. However, it’s easy for homeowners to become distracted by what looks pretty or trendy and forget to consider practical upgrades that will serve their family for years to come.

One great way to increase storage in a bathroom is by installing tower cabinets. These storage units are ideal for holding toiletries, decorations, rolled towels and other accessories. They’re also a great way to make a small bathroom feel more spacious.

Another option for increasing storage in a bathroom is by adding recessed niches to the walls. These compartments are perfect for storing items like q-tips, makeup sponges and spare razor blades. They can be made from wood, metal or glass and should be carefully curated to enhance the overall style of the bathroom.

Lastly, empty space above upper cabinets is a common design pet peeve that can be easily addressed by simply filling in this area with new custom-made cabinets. Choose from frameless or framed cabinet styles to find the one that best fits your home’s decor. You can even go a step further and choose a unique insert such as reeded, leaded or tinted glass.


Your kitchen is the hub of your home. It’s a place of nourishment, love, support, and socialization and therefore deserves only the best upgrades to reflect its purpose. But the best doesn’t necessarily mean expensive. In fact, there are many affordable remodeling options that will give you a great return on your investment.

The right lighting can elevate your bathroom from mundane to relaxing spa-like. Aside from making the room feel brighter and bigger, lighting can also manipulate dimensions to hide less appealing features. Incorporating a dimmer switch gives you the option to change lighting levels to suit your mood and activity. Using waterproof natural light fixtures inside your shower can also create a soothing effect and adds a sense of luxury to your bathroom remodel.

Open shelving is a popular kitchen design trend that can be equally effective in a bathroom. However, be careful not to clutter shelves with items that you don’t need or will use regularly such as make up sponges, q-tips, and spare razor blades. Instead, opt for attractive and practical containers to keep these items neatly organized. Also, be sure to clean your open shelves on a regular basis to avoid mold and mildew build-up.

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